Lin Lan Calligraphy and Painting: 100 Episodes of Ancient Customs in Chinese Paintings (Episode 2 : place to teach musical instruments)

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There are many festivals in China, the biggest one is "Spring Festival".  And there are more Chinese folk customs and habits, and what I want to share today is the ancient Chinese custom related to music "the place to teach music".



In the Song Dynasty, Jiaolefang originally belonged to the court and played music for the government.  "During the Shaoxing years, the title of the teaching workshop was abandoned. In the event of a big court meeting or a holy festival, the front row of the royal platoon and the front of the car would lead the music, and the musicians from the Yaqian of Lin'an Prefecture would be used to sing in the market. 

The government has something to do, such as setting up a wine storehouse to sell wine.  , to attract business.    Such a high workload makes it rare for them to rest within a year, and only have time to entertain themselves on the first day of the new year.

 Jiaofang was the official art institution of the Tang and Song dynasties, located in the then capital Chang'an (Xi'an) and Kaifeng respectively.  Tang Gaozu set up a teaching workshop, which is affiliated to Taichang Temple, and specializes in the management of music and dance other than elegant music.

Emperor Xuanzong of Tang separated Jiaofang from Taichang Temple, "For sacrifices and great ceremonies, Taichang Yale is used; for feasts during the year, Jiaofang Music is used."  Since then, Jiaofang and Taichang Temple have each performed their duties.  There are many acrobatics masters in the classroom.  Tang Xuanzong also ordered the government to put under the jurisdiction of hundreds of opera and acrobatic artists from all over the country, and when there was a grand event, they would recruit and adjust their skills in order to add new talents to the national education workshop.

The An-Shi Rebellion during the Tianbao period caused the Tang Dynasty to decline from prosperity to decline.  The rebels captured Luoyang and Chang'an.  Tang Xuanzong fled to Sichuan, and Jiaofang artists died, were injured, and lived in diaspora.  After the Anshi Rebellion subsided, the rulers of the Tang Dynasty tried to reorganize the Jiaofang, but due to the serious damage to the country's vitality and lack of financial resources, it was impossible to restore the old view.

During the Song Dynasty, the rise of Cheng-Zhu Neo-Confucianism made the concept of feudal ethics more strict.  At that time, the upper classes generally accepted Cheng-Zhu Neo-Confucianism.  They no longer pay attention to the Baixi acrobatics that are not "elegant music" like the rulers of the Han and Tang Dynasties.  Although the Song Dynasty followed the Tang system and still set up teaching workshops, compared with the prosperous Tang Dynasty, it was no longer on a scale.  

The main acrobatic acrobatics of a hundred operas officially formed in the Song Dynasty were all included in the army.  The Song Dynasty military system: the front division of the palace is divided into the front army, the rear army, the left army, the right army, the middle army, and the guarding army, the brave army, the Wang Xuan army, the strategy army, and the Youyi army, a total of ten armies.  

Among them, the left army and the right army are the key points of practicing Baixi acrobatics.  Military artists on the left and right are issued "payments" by the state on a monthly basis.  During the court meeting and imperial banquet, all the military artists from left and right perform acrobatics and acrobatics.  When there were not enough military artists to perform acrobatics and acrobatics, folk artists were hired to act.  

The boundaries between court worship and folk artists gradually disappeared.  As Zhao Sheng said in "Lei Yao of the Court and the Wild": "Although it has the name of Jiaofang today, it belongs to the Xiu Nei Learning and Teaching Music Center, but when there are big banquets and so on, every time the yaqian music power is filled, it is not enough.  Then they hired people from the city. In recent years, there has been no joy in the past, and most of the old people in the Jiaofang are from the market.” 

During the Tang Dynasty, when the culture was prosperous, various types of music emerged one after another. The Tang Dynasty brought together all kinds of music with an eclectic attitude.  During the early days of Li and Tang Dynasties, under the tireless governance of the rulers, the economy, military, and culture, which were hit hard by the uprising at the end of the Sui Dynasty, gradually recovered, and the society gradually became more stable.  However, only the ritual and music stagnated, and the old system of the previous dynasty could only be used.

However, the founder of the Tang Dynasty, the great ancestor Li Yuan, was not satisfied with this, and often sighed, "The work of ritual and music is based on sages and people who set up teachings.   

The courtiers took Chen Zanguo as the flower of the back garden of the Yushu and Qi Zanguo as the accompanying music, and analyzed that music can not only be affected by people's emotions, but also affect people's emotions.  As a result, Li Yuan, Emperor Gaozu of the Tang Dynasty, sent people to consider the north and south, and to examine the ancient sounds.   

Although the Tang Dynasty was tolerant of music culture, the rivalry between elegant music and popular music could not be resolved by inclusivity.  In order to meet the development of popular music, the rulers of the Tang Dynasty racked their brains, and in the process of continuous development of popular music, Jiaofang came into being.


🔽 01 The origin of the Tang Dynasty Jiaofang

Although Jiaofang was a product of the Tang Dynasty, the earliest records of Jiaofang appeared in the period of Cao and Wei of the Three Kingdoms.  The "Three Kingdoms" written by the historian Chen Shou of the Western Jin Dynasty once recorded: "There are also teaching workshops and squatters, and talents are arranged.

However, during the Three Kingdoms period, there were frequent wars and the regime was not unified until the Sui Dynasty was unified, so its origin can also be traced back to the Sui Dynasty.  During the reign of Emperor Yang of Sui Dynasty, he lived a luxurious life and sang and danced for the politicians.

The establishment of the workshop in the Sui Dynasty not only satisfied the pursuit of music by the upper-class nobles, but also promoted the development of music.  In the Tang Dynasty, the government was unified, the society was stable, the economy and culture were prosperous, the national style was open, and the surrounding culture was continuously absorbed. 

In addition, based on the fusion of music and culture of various ethnic groups that had been bred since the Wei and Jin Dynasties, music with singing and dancing music as the main symbol finally broke out.  The peak of all-round development of art.

Although the establishment of the Sui Dynasty workshop was not the direct source of the Tang Dynasty Jiaofang, it indirectly inspired the Tang Dynasty rulers. In addition, the Tang Dynasty attached great importance to the imperial examination system at that time, resulting in an endless stream of literati, which also directly promoted the emergence and development of the Tang Dynasty Jiaofang.


🔽 02 The development of the teaching workshop in the Tang Dynasty

 (1) The development of Jiaofang at the beginning of the founding of the Tang Dynasty

At the beginning of the Tang Dynasty, the country was still in the midst of internal and external troubles and had no time to take into account the development of music. Therefore, the Yuefu system of the Tang Dynasty during this period mainly followed the Sui Dynasty.  

It was not until the ninth year of Wude in the Tang Dynasty that Li Yuan, the great ancestor, ordered Xiaosun to revise the elegant music.  Therefore, the first establishment of Jiaofang was in the later period of Wude in the Tang Dynasty. At that time, Jiaofang was called "Neijiaofang" and was in charge of Yale.

During the reign of Wu Zetian, it was renamed Yunshaofu, and later changed to Jiaofang.  Although the Neijiaofang has been renamed many times, it is still only a place for the palace people to study and teach music.  During this period, the society tended to be stable, so the classrooms gradually began to improve.

 (2) The development of classrooms in the middle of the Tang Dynasty

The real development of the Tang Dynasty Jiaofang was in the middle of the Tang Dynasty, especially when Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty was in power.  During this period of the Tang Dynasty, the society was stable and the country was prosperous. This was also the best period for the growth and development of Jiaofang.

In addition, Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty was very fond of music, and he created "The Song of Feathered Clothes with Neon Clothes", which has both the elegant and elegant style of French music, which is famous all over the world and is praised by the world.  Tang Xuanzong's talent and love for music also promoted the development of the Tang Dynasty Jiaofang.

Therefore, many people joked that Tang Xuanzong Lijiaofang was mainly to satisfy his selfish desire to appreciate music.   

The development of Jiaofang during the period of Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty also benefited from the heyday of national power at that time. At this time, the Tang Dynasty had a harmonious relationship with the surrounding countries. At the same time of business and trade exchanges, various countries carried out cultural exchanges with each other. 

In order to make various art forms coexist independently, Emperor Xuanzong ordered the establishment of various teaching workshops, so there were quite a lot of teaching workshops during this period.

It can be seen from this that the left and right teaching workshops have a clear division of labor and each has its own specialties compared with the inner teaching workshops.  Zuo Jiaofang is good at line dancing, and Right Jiaofang is good at singing, which gradually tends to be rationalized and professional.  

Music from all over the world is brought together, and the fusion of music has been realized in a true sense. Under the reform of Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty, elegant music and popular music were also managed separately.

(3) The development of Jiaofang in the late Tang Dynasty

The positive development of the Jiaofang in the Tang Dynasty ended in the last years of Tianbao. After that, the national strength of the Tang Dynasty declined and the wars continued, and the development of the Jiaofang was hindered.  In particular, the outbreak of the Anshi Rebellion directly stifled the development of the Tang Dynasty and seriously destroyed the prosperity of the music culture of the Tang Dynasty.  After An Lushan captured Xijing, he captured the Bingjia Library, which contained many precious musical instruments and fragments of music.

The An-Shi Rebellion not only caused damage to musical instrument scores, but also caused artists who made a living from music to be unable to make a living and wandered everywhere.  Although Tang Suzong later recovered the lost ground and music workers returned to the capital, the number had been greatly reduced by this time.

As we all know, music develops through inheritance. The loss of these musicians is undoubtedly the theft of the treasure house of music. Without them, Tang Dynasty music could not continue to develop.  The war also brought psychological pressure to the people. In this context, music became a waste product, and the classrooms gradually declined.

After the Anshi Rebellion, the emperors of the Tang Dynasty could not bear the decline of the Jiaofang in their own hands, so they tried their best to develop the Jiaofang, including supplementing musicians and musicians, but even if they tried their best, they could not return the Jiaofang to the prosperity of the early Tang Xuanzong period.  Heyday.  During this period, the scale of the inner and left and right classrooms gradually became smaller and eventually merged into one.

The outbreak of the Anshi Rebellion not only affected the Jiaofang, but also caused a decrease in the number of musicians, which was also a sign of the gradual decline of the Tang Dynasty from its peak of prosperity.  The country is in decline, what about the development of music?  Therefore, later Tang Shunzong dismissed the musicians.

🔽 03 Archaeological discoveries further demonstrate the authenticity of Chinese paintings.

Looking back at all the dynasties in the feudal period, they all went through a process of prosperity and decline, and the same is true of Jiaofang.  At the beginning of the Tang Dynasty, the state power was unified, the society tended to be stable, and the rulers also adopted an open folk customs policy.  

In addition, it has friendly exchanges with neighboring countries, including Asian and European countries, and absorbs the culture and art of various countries, which promotes exchanges and development of social economy, culture and art.

 Northern Song Dynasty Woodcarving Girls Band

This set of cultural relics came from the Northern Song Dynasty tomb in Tieguai Village, Nanling in 2014. The characters are carved using realistic techniques and made of precious wooden materials. The faces are delicate and plump, the body is slender and slender, the lines of the characters are well-proportioned and full of rhythm, and the expressions are leisurely and very secular.  

The modalities and characters are meticulously depicted and lifelike.  Fully reflecting the superb creations of the Song Dynasty artisans, a miniature women's band from the Northern Song Dynasty suddenly appeared in front of the eyes, which can be called the treasure of ancient Chinese woodcarving art.  

A single woodcarving cultural relic in the Northern Song Dynasty is rare, and this band group is the only one in the country, which is rare and precious.

Character details


They are composed of ten young women, who are dressed in uniform narrow-sleeved Beizi clothes, have a uniform high-bun hairstyle, and wear pointed shoes.  

All are exquisite wind and percussion instruments, supplemented by plucked instruments.  The instrument combination is light, concise and elegant in style.


In the Song Dynasty, music went out of the court and prospered in the folk.  In the past, music that was only enjoyed by nobles can now be enjoyed by citizens.  

In order to adapt to the different entertainment tastes of the citizens, various art forms such as singing and earning, Zhugong tune, etc. have developed. These new art forms have promoted the development of Song Dynasty music to a more comprehensive art form, forming another artistic form in the history of ancient Chinese music.  peak.   

So far, opera and rap music have become the mainstream of music culture in ancient my country's feudal society, and music has shifted from "middle-ancient opera music" to "the era of modern opera and folk art".  

The transition from court music to citizen music is not only the result of the influence of the social, political, economic, and cultural environment, but also the embodiment of citizen music's own efforts, showing a new format in the history of music.


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